Nobel Prize Laureates
Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Steven Chu is the William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of Physics
and Professor of Molecular & Cellular Physiology in the Medical
School at Stanford University. His published 260 papers in atomic
and polymer physics, biophysics, biology, biomedicine, batteries,
and holds 10 patents.
Dr. Chu was the 12th U.S. Secretary of Energy from January
2009 until the end of April 2013. As the first scientist to hold a
Cabinet position and the longest serving Energy Secretary, he recruited outstanding
scientists and engineers into the Department of Energy. He began several initiatives
including ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency Energy), the Energy Innovation
Hubs, the U.S. China Clean Energy Research Centers (CERC), and was
tasked by President Obama to assist BP in stopping the Deepwater Horizon oil leak.
Prior to his cabinet post, he was director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
and Professor of Physics and Molecular and Cell Biology at UC Berkeley. Previously
he was the Theodore and Francis Geballe Professor of Physics and Applied Physics
at Stanford University, and head of the Quantum Electronics Research Department at
AT&T Bell Laboratories.
Dr. Chu has numerous awards including the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics
for the laser cooling and atom trapping, shared with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William
Phillips. He holds 26 honorary degrees and is a member of the National Academy of
Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,
the Academia Sinica, and is a foreign member of the Royal Society, the Royal
Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Korean Academy
of Sciences and Technology.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006
Born April 24, 1947 in St Louis, Missouri, USA, Kornberg earned his bachelor's degree in chemistry from
Harvard University in 1967 and his PhD in chemical physics from Stanford in 1972.
He then became a postdoctoral fellow at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge England.
Since 1976 he was a senior lecturer at Military-Medical School of the Harvard University.
In 1978 he returned to his post of professor at Stanford University.
Kornberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2006
for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
His father, Arthur Kornberg, who was also professor at Stanford University, was awarded
the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959.
Roger Kornberg is professor of Structural Biology at Stanford University School of Medicine.
In 2012 Roger Cornberg was elected Doctor Honoris Causa of the Academic University.
Yuan Tseh Lee
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
Born in Taiwan in 1936, Yuan T. Lee received his B.S. degree from
the National Taiwan University in 1959 and Doctorate from UC
Berkeley in 1965. After working with Professor Mahan at Berkeley
and Professor Herschbach at Harvard as a post-doctoral fellow, he
was appointed Assistant Professor at the University of Chicago in
1968. He returned to Berkeley as Professor of Chemistry in 1974.
He was University Professor and Principal Investigator at the
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, UC Berkeley, before he returned to Taiwan to serve as
the President of Academia Sinica from 1994 to 2006. He was elected President of the
International Council for Science (ICSU) in 2008 and served from 2011 to 2014. He has
received numerous awards and honors, including
the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
the U.S. National Medal of Science, Faraday Medal from the Royal Chemical Society
of Great Britain, Ernest O. Lawrence Award of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Harrison
Howe Award, the Peter Debye Award of Physical Chemistry from the American
Chemical Society, the Othmer Gold Medal from the Chemical Heritage Foundation, the
Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Medal from India, the Ettore Majorana-Erice-Science
for Peace Prize from the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture
of Italy, Kolos Prize and Medal from Poland, the Grand Officer of the French National
Order of Merit, the Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero from the Republic of Panama,
and the Grand Cross of the National Order of Scientific Merit from the Federative Republic
of Brazil. He has also received Doctor Honoris Causa from 40 universities and
is an elected member of various academies throughout the world.
Aside from his scientific interests in the elucidation of dynamics of chemical
reactions and photochemical processes, he also directed much of his attention to the
advancement of international scientific developments and to the promotion of general
public affairs. He has served as advisory board member on numerous national and
international organizations, including US Department of Energy, Welch Foundation,
Chief Advisor of the Science and Technology Advisory Group to the Prime Minister of
Taiwan, International Scientific Council of the Israeli-Palestinian Science Organization,
Science and Technology in Society Forum, RIKEN, and Okinawa Institute of Science
and Technology in Japan.
In 2014 Yuan Tseh Lee was elected Doctor Honoris Causa of the Academic University.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Jean-Marie Lehn was born in Rosheim, France in 1939. In 1970 he
became Professor of Chemistry at the Université Louis Pasteur in
Strasbourg and from 1979 to 2010 he was Professor at the Collège
de France in Paris. He is presently Professor at the University of
Strasbourg Institute of Advanced Study (USIAS). He shared the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1987 with Donald J. Cram and Charles J. Pedersen
«for their development and
use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity»
, which also plays a fundamental role in biological processes.
Over the years his work led to the definition of a new field of chemistry, which he
has proposed calling «supramolecular chemistry» as it deals with the complex entities
formed by the association of two or more chemical species held together by non-covalent
intermolecular forces, whereas molecular chemistry concerns the entities constructed
from atoms linked by covalent bonds. Subsequently, the area developed into the chemistry
of «self-organization» processes and more recently into «constitutional dynamic
Author of more than 950 scientific publications, Lehn is a member of many academies
and institutions. He has received numerous international honours and awards.
Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Hiroshi Amano received his BE, ME and DE degree in 1983, 1985
and 1989, respectively, from Nagoya University. From 1988 to
1992, he was a research associate at Nagoya University. In 1992,
he moved to Meijo University, where he was an assistant professor,
associate professor from 1998 till 2002, and professor from 2002
till 2010. In 2010, he moved to the Graduate School of Engineering,
Nagoya University, where he is currently a professor.
He joined Professor Isamu Akasaki's group in 1982 as an undergraduate
student. Since then, he has been doing research on the growth, characterization
and device applications of group III nitride semiconductors, which are well known as
materials used in blue light-emitting diodes. In 1985, he developed low-temperature
deposited buffer layers for the growth of group III nitride semiconductor films on a sapphire
substrate, which led to the realization of group-III-nitride semiconductor based
light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. In 1989, he succeeded in growing p-type GaN
and fabricating a p-n-junction-type GaN-based UV/blue light-emitting diode for the
first time in the world.
He is currently developing technologies for the fabrication of high-efficiency power
semiconductor devices and new energy-saving devices at Nagoya University.
He has over 500 publications, and 30 patents. He has been the recipient of numerous
academic awards, grants, and fellowships, including the Rank Award (1998), Marubun
Academic Award (2001), Takeda Award (2002), The Japan Society Applied Physics
Fellow (2009), IOP Fellow (2011), APEX/JJAP Editorial Contribution Award (2014),
The Order of Cultural Merit (2014), and Person of Cultural Merit (2014).
He shared the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics with Prof. Isamu Akasaki and Prof. Shuji
«for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled
bright and energy-saving white light sources».
Nobel Prize in Physics 1984
Born in the town of Gorizia, Italy on March 31, 1934, he graduated from the Physics Department of the University of Pisa and obtained his PhD in 1958. In 1958 he became the researcher at the Colombian University, the USA.
In 1984 he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Simon van der Meer
for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction.
The discovery of communicators of one of the four types of fundamental interactions in the nature can be well compared in its importance with the discovery of radio waves and photons, "responsible" for the electromagnetic interaction.
Working with a team including more than 100 members, he ensured implementation of a grandiose project of CERN-construction of an ultrahigh-power proton accelerator and development of a 1200-ton detector chamber, which made it possible to identify, and determine the properties of tens of new particles sought-for by experimenters (one per every billion of collisions). One of the results obtained in his studies was the theoretical substantiation of the existence of the sixth (top) quark. Recently, has been developing the concept of ecologically clean power engineering and use of new sources of electricity.
In 1989, he was appointed Director-General of the CERN Laboratory. îÅ currently serves as Scientific Director of the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies in Potsdam (Germany).
Academician RAS, Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Born on March 15, 1930, in Vitebsk (USSR, now Belarus), in 1952 he
graduated from Leningrad Electrotechnical
Institute. In January 1953
he became staff member of the
Ioffe Institute, where de defended
his candidate (1961) and doctoral
(1970) theses. Corresponding Member (1972), Academician of the
Russian Academy of Sciences (1979).
From 1987 to 2003 Director of
the Ioffe Institute.
In 2000 he was awarded (together with H. Kroemer) Nobel Prize in Physics
for basic work on information and communication technology particularly for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics.
As shown theoretically and experimentally in the
studies carried out by the laureate at the Ioffe Institute,
it is possible to control in a novel way fluxes of electrons
and photons in semiconductor heterostructures, artificial
crystals grown from semiconductors with different
chemical compositions. Lasers, light-emitting diodes,
photodiodes, transistors and solar cells developed on the
basis of heterostructures are universally used in modern
systems for information transfer and storage and in space
He is a Doctor Honoris Causa of more than 60 foreign and Russian universities.
Honorary and foreign member of more than 20 academies of science including National
Academy of Science of the United States and National Academy of Engineering of the
Alferov is one of the most prominent organizers of academic science in Russia and
a proponent of creation of educational centers at leading institutes of the RAS. Educational
center for physics and technology organized by him at the Ioffe Institute has been
functioning since 1999. In 2002 he created the Academic Physical and Technological
University of the RAS. In 2009 by affiliation to it of the Lyceum «Physical and technical
school» of the RAS the St Petersburg Academic University Nanotechnology
Research and Education Center of the RAS (the Academic University) was founded. In
2011 the Academic University was granted the status of the National research University.
At present, he is a Vice-President of the RAS, Chair of the St Petersburg Scientific
Center of the RAS, the Rector of the St Petersburg Academic University.