Plenary lecturers,
Nobel Prize Laureates

Steven Chu

Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

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Steven Chu is the William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of Physics and Professor of Molecular & Cellular Physiology in the Medical School at Stanford University. His published 260 papers in atomic and polymer physics, biophysics, biology, biomedicine, batteries, and holds 10 patents.

Dr. Chu was the 12th U.S. Secretary of Energy from January 2009 until the end of April 2013. As the first scientist to hold a Cabinet position and the longest serving Energy Secretary, he recruited outstanding scientists and engineers into the Department of Energy. He began several initiatives including ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency — Energy), the Energy Innovation Hubs, the U.S. — China Clean Energy Research Centers (CERC), and was tasked by President Obama to assist BP in stopping the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. Prior to his cabinet post, he was director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Professor of Physics and Molecular and Cell Biology at UC Berkeley. Previously he was the Theodore and Francis Geballe Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University, and head of the Quantum Electronics Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories.

Dr. Chu has numerous awards including the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics for the laser cooling and atom trapping, shared with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William Phillips. He holds 26 honorary degrees and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Academia Sinica, and is a foreign member of the Royal Society, the Royal Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Korean Academy of Sciences and Technology.

Roger Kornberg

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

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Born April 24, 1947 in St Louis, Missouri, USA, Kornberg earned his bachelor's degree in chemistry from Harvard University in 1967 and his PhD in chemical physics from Stanford in 1972. He then became a postdoctoral fellow at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge England.

Since 1976 he was a senior lecturer at Military-Medical School of the Harvard University. In 1978 he returned to his post of professor at Stanford University.

Kornberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2006 for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription .

His father, Arthur Kornberg, who was also professor at Stanford University, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959.

Roger Kornberg is professor of Structural Biology at Stanford University School of Medicine.

In 2012 Roger Cornberg was elected Doctor Honoris Causa of the Academic University.

Yuan Tseh Lee

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

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Born in Taiwan in 1936, Yuan T. Lee received his B.S. degree from the National Taiwan University in 1959 and Doctorate from UC Berkeley in 1965. After working with Professor Mahan at Berkeley and Professor Herschbach at Harvard as a post-doctoral fellow, he was appointed Assistant Professor at the University of Chicago in 1968. He returned to Berkeley as Professor of Chemistry in 1974. He was University Professor and Principal Investigator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, UC Berkeley, before he returned to Taiwan to serve as the President of Academia Sinica from 1994 to 2006. He was elected President of the International Council for Science (ICSU) in 2008 and served from 2011 to 2014. He has received numerous awards and honors, including the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the U.S. National Medal of Science, Faraday Medal from the Royal Chemical Society of Great Britain, Ernest O. Lawrence Award of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Harrison Howe Award, the Peter Debye Award of Physical Chemistry from the American Chemical Society, the Othmer Gold Medal from the Chemical Heritage Foundation, the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Medal from India, the Ettore Majorana-Erice-Science for Peace Prize from the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture of Italy, Kolos Prize and Medal from Poland, the Grand Officer of the French National Order of Merit, the Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero from the Republic of Panama, and the Grand Cross of the National Order of Scientific Merit from the Federative Republic of Brazil. He has also received Doctor Honoris Causa from 40 universities and is an elected member of various academies throughout the world.

Aside from his scientific interests in the elucidation of dynamics of chemical reactions and photochemical processes, he also directed much of his attention to the advancement of international scientific developments and to the promotion of general public affairs. He has served as advisory board member on numerous national and international organizations, including US Department of Energy, Welch Foundation, Chief Advisor of the Science and Technology Advisory Group to the Prime Minister of Taiwan, International Scientific Council of the Israeli-Palestinian Science Organization, Science and Technology in Society Forum, RIKEN, and Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology in Japan.

In 2014 Yuan Tseh Lee was elected Doctor Honoris Causa of the Academic University.

Jean-Marie Lehn

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

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Jean-Marie Lehn was born in Rosheim, France in 1939. In 1970 he became Professor of Chemistry at the Université Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg and from 1979 to 2010 he was Professor at the Collège de France in Paris. He is presently Professor at the University of Strasbourg Institute of Advanced Study (USIAS). He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1987 with Donald J. Cram and Charles J. Pedersen «for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity», which also plays a fundamental role in biological processes.

Over the years his work led to the definition of a new field of chemistry, which he has proposed calling «supramolecular chemistry» as it deals with the complex entities formed by the association of two or more chemical species held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces, whereas molecular chemistry concerns the entities constructed from atoms linked by covalent bonds. Subsequently, the area developed into the chemistry of «self-organization» processes and more recently into «constitutional dynamic chemistry».

Author of more than 950 scientific publications, Lehn is a member of many academies and institutions. He has received numerous international honours and awards.

Hiroshi Amano

Nobel Prize in Physics 2014

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Hiroshi Amano received his BE, ME and DE degree in 1983, 1985 and 1989, respectively, from Nagoya University. From 1988 to 1992, he was a research associate at Nagoya University. In 1992, he moved to Meijo University, where he was an assistant professor, associate professor from 1998 till 2002, and professor from 2002 till 2010. In 2010, he moved to the Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, where he is currently a professor.

He joined Professor Isamu Akasaki's group in 1982 as an undergraduate student. Since then, he has been doing research on the growth, characterization and device applications of group III nitride semiconductors, which are well known as materials used in blue light-emitting diodes. In 1985, he developed low-temperature deposited buffer layers for the growth of group III nitride semiconductor films on a sapphire substrate, which led to the realization of group-III-nitride semiconductor based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. In 1989, he succeeded in growing p-type GaN and fabricating a p-n-junction-type GaN-based UV/blue light-emitting diode for the first time in the world.

He is currently developing technologies for the fabrication of high-efficiency power semiconductor devices and new energy-saving devices at Nagoya University.

He has over 500 publications, and 30 patents. He has been the recipient of numerous academic awards, grants, and fellowships, including the Rank Award (1998), Marubun Academic Award (2001), Takeda Award (2002), The Japan Society Applied Physics Fellow (2009), IOP Fellow (2011), APEX/JJAP Editorial Contribution Award (2014), The Order of Cultural Merit (2014), and Person of Cultural Merit (2014).

He shared the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics with Prof. Isamu Akasaki and Prof. Shuji Nakamura «for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources».

Carlo Rubbia

Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

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Born in the town of Gorizia, Italy on March 31, 1934, he graduated from the Physics Department of the University of Pisa and obtained his PhD in 1958. In 1958 he became the researcher at the Colombian University, the USA.

In 1984 he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Simon van der Meer for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction. The discovery of communicators of one of the four types of fundamental interactions in the nature can be well compared in its importance with the discovery of radio waves and photons, "responsible" for the electromagnetic interaction.

Working with a team including more than 100 members, he ensured implementation of a grandiose project of CERN-construction of an ultrahigh-power proton accelerator and development of a 1200-ton detector chamber, which made it possible to identify, and determine the properties of tens of new particles sought-for by experimenters (one per every billion of collisions). One of the results obtained in his studies was the theoretical substantiation of the existence of the sixth (top) quark. Recently, has been developing the concept of ecologically clean power engineering and use of new sources of electricity.

In 1989, he was appointed Director-General of the CERN Laboratory. currently serves as Scientific Director of the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies in Potsdam (Germany).

Zhores Alferov

Academician RAS, Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

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Born on March 15, 1930, in Vitebsk (USSR, now Belarus), in 1952 he graduated from Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute. In January 1953 he became staff member of the Ioffe Institute, where de defended his candidate (1961) and doctoral (1970) theses. Corresponding Member (1972), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1979). From 1987 to 2003 — Director of the Ioffe Institute.

In 2000 he was awarded (together with H. Kroemer) Nobel Prize in Physics for basic work on information and communication technology particularly for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics.

As shown theoretically and experimentally in the studies carried out by the laureate at the Ioffe Institute, it is possible to control in a novel way fluxes of electrons and photons in semiconductor heterostructures, artificial crystals grown from semiconductors with different chemical compositions. Lasers, light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, transistors and solar cells developed on the basis of heterostructures are universally used in modern systems for information transfer and storage and in space power engineering.

He is a Doctor Honoris Causa of more than 60 foreign and Russian universities. Honorary and foreign member of more than 20 academies of science including National Academy of Science of the United States and National Academy of Engineering of the United States.

Alferov is one of the most prominent organizers of academic science in Russia and a proponent of creation of educational centers at leading institutes of the RAS. Educational center for physics and technology organized by him at the Ioffe Institute has been functioning since 1999. In 2002 he created the Academic Physical and Technological University of the RAS. In 2009 by affiliation to it of the Lyceum «Physical and technical school» of the RAS the St Petersburg Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Center of the RAS (the Academic University) was founded. In 2011 the Academic University was granted the status of the National research University.

At present, he is a Vice-President of the RAS, Chair of the St Petersburg Scientific Center of the RAS, the Rector of the St Petersburg Academic University.

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